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In the rest of this text, I will explain these steps one by one. Most of the commands below need to be run in a terminal with root privilege.
dpkg-reconfigure locales, and choose the following items.
NOTE: Sometimes you need to reboot to get the new locales working. To avoid potential problems, it is strongly recommended that you get this correct from the beginning when you install your system.
These packages can be installed by running
apt-get install ttf-arphic-bkai00mp ttf-arphic-bsmi00lp
There are other fonts available. You can find them by searching for "xfonts" using dselect
There are several packages related to scim. The easiest way to install it is by running
apt-get install scim scim-chinese scim-tables-zh
The package names may change in the future (as they did in the past). In that case, you can search for packages beginning with "scim" using dselect, examine their descriptions, and choose the input methods you need. After that dselect will do the rest of the job by selecting all dependent packages.
After that, create a new file /etc/X11/Xsession.d/95xinput with the following content.
/usr/bin/scim -d XMODIFIERS="@im=SCIM" export XMODIFIERS
This script will be run every time X windows starts. In case you want to be more flexible, you can put something more complicated in the file. For example,
case "$LANG" in zh_TW*) /usr/bin/scim -d XMODIFIERS="@im=SCIM" ;; zh_CN*) /usr/bin/scim -d XMODIFIERS="@im=SCIM" ;; esac export XMODIFIERSThis takes effect only when you restart X. The simplest way to do that is to press "Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace".
To use scim, simply press "Ctrl-Space", and a small window will appear at the lower right corner of the desktop.
It is advisable that you configure scim (right click on its icon on the panel, then configure) and remove all unwanted input methods. You will need to restart scim (probably X, too) to make this to take effect.
If you are using a X display manager that does not support this, you will have to put an additional line such as
in /etc/X11/Xsession.d/95xinput. NOTE: It would not work if you run this after you login. You will need to restart X for this to work.
REMARK: One "side effect" of this is that once you set the language to be Chinese, then all the menu become Chinese. For those who want to keep the English menu but still want to view/input Chinese, you can set locale to be zh_CN.gb2312, but change the settings for some environment variables. For example, I have the following lines in the above file.
ENCODING="en_US" #export LC_ALL=$ENCODING export LC_MESSAGES=$ENCODING #export LC_COLLATE=$ENCODING #export LC_CTYPE=$ENCODING export LC_TIME=$ENCODING export LC_NUMERIC=$ENCODING #export LC_MONETARY=$ENCODING #export LC_PAPER=$ENCODING #export LC_NAME=$ENCODING export LC_ADDRESS=$ENCODING export LC_TELEPHONE=$ENCODING export LC_MEASUREMENT=$ENCODING export LC_IDENTIFICATION=$ENCODINGThen I got English display of menu, time and date, etc. You should comment/uncomment these items according to your needs.
Note that "scim" works fine no matter what locale you choose.
For Mozilla version 1.6, there are some locale packages such as mozilla-locale-zh-cn or mozilla-locale-zh-tw.
For Mozilla-Firefox, you might need to install one of the mozilla-firefox-locale-zh-cn or mozilla-firefox-locale-zh-tw packages.
set enc=euc-cn set tenc=euc-cn set fileencoding=euc-cn set guifont=AR\ PL\ KaitiM\ GB\ 12
The last line specifies the font and the font size to use. You can change it to any of the four fonts as in Section 2 above, and adjust the font size until you feel comfortable.
Note that even when you set
gvim might still display Chinese menu if your locale is set to Chinese.
In this case, you need a bit trick here.
Firstly, you need to create a file with the content something like the following.
#!/bin/sh # Start application $1 with English environment if [ -z "$1" ]; then echo "Usage: $0 app arg1 arg2 ... " exit 1 fi export LANG=en_US PROG=$1 shift exec $PROG $*Let us call this file
enstart.sh, and put the file in a directory that is in your
/usr/local/bin. Make sure that it is executable by running
chmod +x /usr/local/bin/chstart.shin a terminal.
This small shell script will set
$LANG so that the
application it runs would think that it is running in a full English system.
To run gvim, we run
enstart.sh gvim instead.
You can add this to your desktop/panel shortcut, or make it an alias.
The gnome-terminal, the default terminal emulator in the GNOME environment, supports Chinese by selecting the character encoding from the terminal menu.
The default terminal emulator in KDE, Konsole, works fine with Chinese automatically if the locale is set correctly. You can also select/change character encoding from the menu.
fat vfatTo display Chinese characters properly, you will need at least one of the following modules:
nls_cp936 (for simplified Chinese) nls_cp950 (for traditional Chinese) nls_utf8 (for Unicode characters)
Then in the file /etc/fstab, add another line like the following
/dev/hda5 /mnt/dos vfat noauto,user,codepage=936,iocharset=cp936 0 0
for simplified Chinese, and replace the number 936 to 950 for traditional Chinese, and to utf8 for Unicode characters. NOTE: you should change the partition (/dev/hda5) and mount point (/mnt/dos) to the partition you want to mount, and the directory you want it to be mounted to, respectively.
zh_CN.gb2312, which is quite weird. My guess is that this has to do with the locale I set when I first install the system.
Fortunately, similar trick as in the case of gvim can
be applied here, but this time we want to run with Chinese support.
Let us create the following file and call it
#!/bin/sh # Start application $1 with Chinese environment if [ -z "$1" ]; then echo "Usage: $0 app arg1 arg2 ... " exit 1 fi export LANG=zh_CN.gb2312 PROG=$1 shift exec $PROG $*
To run XMMS, just type
chstart.sh xmms in a terminal,
or create a shortcut on desktop/panel to do it, or use an alias.
A work-around for AMSN is to use the
to start it instead (but of course you cannot expect to input Chinese with it).
Fortunately, there are instant messengers that do support Chinese.
Skype is an example, but only works when gdm/kdm has the locale set to
zh_CN.gb2312 otherwise it will not work even if you start
it with the
chstart.h script above.
GAIM is another cute IM that was reported to work with Chinese. It is compatible with AIM, Yahoo! Messenger, MSN Messenger, Google Talk (Jabber), etc.
One of things trouble me a lot is the Java on Debian do not support Chinese natively. I got the solution to Java1.5 recently (tested for GB2312).
Here is the way (two steps):
1. make a directory fallback under
2. add a Chinese TrueType or Type 1 font under fallback
ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arphic/gbsn00lp.ttf .
Note the trailing dot at the end of the above line.
Some explanations for the fallback:
"... If the runtime environment has a directory lib/fonts/fallback and this directory contains valid TrueType or Type 1 fonts, the runtime automatically adds these fonts as fallback fonts for 2D rendering..." --- from http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/guide/intl/fontconfig.html
Note: This solution should be considered as quick and dirty, the best solution would be change the fontconfig file for Java. But, I haven't figured out that yet.